Per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances (PFAS) have long been known for their detrimental effects on the ecosystems and living organisms; however the long-term impact on the marine environment is still insufficiently recognized. Based on PFAS persistence and bioaccumulation in the complex marine food network, adverse effects will be exacerbated by global processes such as climate change and synergies with other pollutants, like microplastics. The range of fluorochemicals currently included in the PFAS umbrella has significantly expanded due to the updated OECD definition, raising new concerns about their poorly understood dynamics and negative effects on the ocean wildlife and human health. Mitigation challenges and approaches, including biodegradation and currently studied materials for PFAS environmental removal are proposed here, highlighting the importance of ongoing monitoring and bridging research gaps. The PFAS EU regulations, good practices and legal frameworks are discussed, with emphasis on recommendations for improving marine ecosystem management.
Scientific article on per- and polyfluorinated alkyl substances
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